Friday, 22 February 2019


Direct and Indirect Speech
We can report the words of a speaker in two ways:
      1.   By repeating the exact words used by the speaker.(Direct speech)
      2.   By reporting the message of the speaker  in our own words.
      1.   Ram said, “Anand is a good boy.” (Direct speech)
      2.   Ram said that Anand was a good boy. (Indirect speech)

Tips For Changing Direct Speech Into Indirect Speech

1.    All inverted commas or quotation marks are omitted and the sentence ends with a full stop.
2.    Conjunction ‘that’ is added before the indirect statement.
3.    The pronoun ….. is changed .
4.    The verb …… is changed
5.    The adverb ‘now’ is changed to ‘then’.

Rules For Changing Direct Speech Into Indirect Speech
Rule 1: If the Reporting Verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the Verb in the Reported Speech is not changed at all. In other words, if in direct speech we find say, says or will say then we will not change the tense of the verb inside the quotation marks.
Here are some examples:
Direct Speech - Dia says, “There is no water in the glass.”
Indirect Speech - Dia says that there is no water in the glass.
Rule 2: If in direct speech the Reported Speech contains some universal or habitual fact, then we will follow RULE ONE or in other words the tense inside the quotation marks remains unchanged.
Here are some examples:
Direct Speech - Ravi said, “Everything happens for a reason.”
Indirect Speech - Ravi said that everything happens for a reason.
Direct Speech - Teacher said, “The moon moves round the earth.”
Indirect Speech - Teacher said that the moon moves round the earth.

Rule 3: If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the Verb in the Reported Speech is also changed to the Past Tense. In other word, if in direct speech we find reporting verb “said” then we will change the tense of the verb inside the quotation marks to the past tense.
 Change in verb:
      i.   The Simple Present becomes the Simple Past.
Direct Speech - Tia said, “Neena works very hard.”
Indirect Speech - Tia said that Neena worked very hard.

      ii.   The Present Continuous becomes the Past Continuous.
Direct Speech - He said, "I visited Delhi last year”
Indirect Speech - He said that he had visited Delhi the previous year.
 iii.   The Present Perfect becomes the Past Perfect.
Direct Speech - Anu said, "I have lived here for a long time.”
Indirect Speech - Anu said that she had lived there for a long time.

     iv.   May is changed into might; can is changed into could.
Direct Speech - He said, “Rahul may clear the exam.”
Indirect Speech - He said that Rahul might clear the exam.

 v.   The Simple Past becomes the Past Perfect.
Direct Speech - Dev,”Avi reached at night.”
Indirect Speech - Dev said that Avi had reached at night.

     vi.   The Past Continuous becomes the Past Perfect Continuous.
Direct Speech - Ravi said, “All were looking at the magician.”
Indirect Speech - Ravi said that all had been looking at the magician.

      vii.   Shall is changed into should; will is changed into would.
Direct Speech - Radha said, "I will open the door."
Indirect Speech - Radha said that she would open the door.

Rule 4: 
Change in Pronoun:
i) Pronouns of the First Person are changed into the person of the Subject/Speaker. e.g.
Direct: He said, “I like to read kindle now.”
Indirect: He said that he liked to read kindle then.

ii) Pronouns of the Second Person are changed into the person of the pronouns that come after the Reporting Verb. e.g.
Direct: He said to me, “You are not a genius.”
Indirect: He told me that I am not a genius.

iii) Pronouns of the Third Person are not changed at all. e.g.
Direct: He said, “He is a rich man.”
Indirect: He said that he is a rich man.

Rule 5: When turning a sentence from Direct into indirect Speech words showing ‘nearness’ are changed into words showing ‘distance.’ Thus:
Now becomes then.
Here becomes there.
Ago becomes before.
Today becomes before.
This becomes that.
These become those.
Tomorrow becomes the next day.
Yesterday becomes the day before (or the previous day).
Last night becomes the night before (or the previous night).
Here are some examples:
Direct Speech - Tim said, “I am free now.”
Indirect Speech - Tim said that he was free then.
Direct Speech - He said, “I have seen this woman in the market.”
Indirect Speech - He said that he had seen that woman in the market.

Monday, 24 September 2018

Class 5
Term 1(Halfyearly) Eng syllabus (Sep 2018)
Vocabulary--Onomatopoeic words,Rhyming words,Rhyming scheme,Synonyms,Antonyms
Grammar----Parts of speech,sentence and its kinds,Pronouns & its types,Adjective and its types,Gender noun,Number noun,Articles.
Creative Wr--Couplet,Triplet,Diary entry,Picture description.

Friday, 2 February 2018

·                      Annual examination is scheduled from 05.03.2018.
·                      Syllabus for class IV for the upcoming Term-2 examination is as follows-


Ch – 14   Houses then and now
Ch – 15   Animal habitats
Ch – 18   Water
Ch – 19   Water changes
Ch – 21   Houses and bridges.


            उड़ान – 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 ,15
      व्याकरणअतिरिक्त व्याकरण कार्य , औपचारिक पत्र
            अनुच्छेद लेखन,रचनात्मक लेखन
अपठित गद्यांश

         L-6 Factors &, Multiples (from 6.5 to6.11)
         L-8 Metric Measure {exclude 8.6(B),8.7(B)}
         L-9 Fractions (only like of 9.7,9.8 ,9.9,9.10)
                {exclude 9.11,9.12,9.13}
         L-10 Decimal System
         L-11 Time {exclude 


         Chapter 5 and 6


     *Sports pgno- 20,26,45,52,54,80
     *The world around us- 14, 23, 32, 34, 38, 40, 43,  


      MCB  LS-11,12,13,14,15
Grammar – Articles, Simple tenses, continuous                             tenses,forms of Adjective, Adverbs,                             Nouns, Conjunctions.
Creative writing - Diary entry and Informal letter.
Vocabulary –Synonyms, homophones,
                      Antonyms (negative prefix)  
                        suffixes forming nouns.


Literature – MCB LS. 11, 12, 13, 14
Grammar: Tenses (simple, continuous, perfect), Active voice and passive voice       
                   conjunctions, question tags.
Creative Writing: Formal letter and dialogue writing.
Vocabulary: Synonyms, Antonyms, nouns as adjectives, compound nouns, suffixes, homophones.

Friday, 24 November 2017

Class 4
 Revision 2 (PT2)
Fill in the blanks with the suitable preposition and mention its kind

1. Shyam kept his bottle ____________the table.
2. Ravi was absent __________Monday.
3. I’m waiting for my friend _______________ her house. 
4. We’re playing a game ______the park.
5.I like sitting _______________  the sofa. 
6. Can you swim _______________ water? 
7.My teddy is _______________ my doll. 
8.Mahatma Gandhi was born _________2 October.
9.The train will depart _____________8:00 A.M.
10.she does her homework __________the evening.